Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres was one of the leading French neoclassical painters of the 1800s, although he is remembered for his portraits of contemporaries more than for his classical and historical paintings. There is a warmth and humanity to the portraits, particularly in the eyes, that makes them seem more real than a photograph.
In 1814, Ingres traveled to Naples where he did a number of paintings, including this one of the Queen Caroline Murat, the younger sister of Napoleon I. The Murat's ordered three other paintings, but would be deposed in 1815, and Ingres was stranded in Rome without pay.
I like the brooding Romantic quality to this painting that I detect in spite of her placid expression. The dramatic black dress seems to grow from the floor and her shape, with the elaborate head wear, repeats the shape of the volcano in the background. The effect is of a photo negative of the volcano.